Anderson, 23, has appeared in two games since his recall from Triple-A Memphis, but he has yet to catch a pitch in a game. On Tuesday, he will start in place of Yadier Molina. Regular backup catcher Jason LaRue is on the disabled list due to a strained right hamstring.
"I think right now, the plan is [Molina] gets off tomorrow," manager Tony La Russa said.
Anderson, long known as an offensively gifted catcher with an iffy glove, has drawn praise for his defensive improvements this spring and early season. He got off to a hot start with the bat at Memphis as well, though he's 0-for-2 in the early going of his big league career.
"It's important that he reestablish himself as a top prospect," general manager John Mozeliak said. "Remember, he's 23. He's still very young."