With one out in the inning and St. Louis holding a 3-0 lead, the Cardinals employed the shift for Saltalamacchia, who was batting lefty against Justin Masterson.
Saltalamacchia struck a sharp grounder that was fielded in short right field by second baseman Kolten Wong, who made the long throw to first. First baseman Matt Adams stretched and received the ball as Saltalamacchia's foot was reaching the bag.
First-base umpire Doug Eddings ruled Saltalamacchia out, and Miami manager Mike Redmond came out of the dugout and asked for a review.
After an estimated one-minute, 20-second review, crew chief Jim Joyce signaled out.
The Marlins are now 16-for-22 in challenges.
Joe Frisaro is a reporter for MLB.com. He writes a blog, called The Fish Pond. Follow him on Twitter @JoeFrisaro. This story was not subject to the approval of Major League Baseball or its clubs.